z banding

How To Fix Z Banding / Z Wobble / Z Ribbing in 3D Printing

Do you wish to make your printing process smooth and hassle-free? Then we have got you covered. While 3D printing any parts, you will encounter some issues due to 3D printer stringing, 3D printer clogged nozzle,  ghost printing, Z-banding much more.

Only when you fix these issues, you will get the most of your 3D printer. That said, in this article, we will discuss everything about Z-banding.  Now follow these easy steps to evade the usual dawdling issues like Z banding and Z wobble.

What is Z banding in 3D printing?

Z banding is a printing issue that can be easily witnessed on 3D prints. If you can see periodic patterns or layers occurring at regular intervals on your 3D prints, then it is a sign of Z banding. It mostly occurs due to inconsistent extrusion or Z wobble. This print quality defect is rare, but it should be fixed once encountered. Z banding is also commonly known as Z ribbing.

Are Z banding and Z wobble the same?

Many people erroneously consider Z banding and Z wobble the same, but that’s not the reality. Z banding/Ribbing is usually caused due to 3D printer Z wobble or inconsistent extrusion and micro-stepping, resulting in thicker or thinner layers than desired.

On the other hand, it is caused due to twisted or bent Z-axis or leads screws. The faulty Z-axis or lead screws leads to the 3D printing forming titled or deviated pathways on Z-axis, further resulting in 3d print Z wobble.

Inconsistent extrusion occurs when the desired amount of flow from the filament is entirely different from what flows out of the filament. This difference occurs either due to a clogged nozzle or an irregular temperature.

However, 3D printing Z wobble and inconsistent extrusion are the major issues of concern as they can cause severe problems.

Causes of 3D print Z banding

Z banding, as aforementioned, is a printing issue that can obstruct the flow of 3D printing. To avoid Z banding while printing and create satisfactory prints, look out for the following causes of Z banding –

  1. Z Wobble
  2. Inconsistent extrusion
  3. Microstepping in stepper motor
  4. Printer’s bed temperature and fluctuations
  5. Unstable Z-axis rods
  6. Bad alignment in the Z-axis

How to Fix 3D Printer Z banding?

Is your printing flow getting interrupted due to 3d print banding? Don’t worry; we have got some solutions to make sure that you continue printing without interruptions. You can follow these fixes for the Z banding ender 3 issue too.

1. Correctly align the 3D printer Z-axis

The Z-axis comes into action with the help of the Z bracket and manufacturing process. If the Z bracket is defective or the manufacturing process is flawed, it can lead to Z banding.

To fix this issue, you need to look for a suitable stepper mount for the Printer. How will a stepper mount help? All you need to do is to connect this mount to the Z-axis with the help of a flexible coupler. This will rectify the wrong alignment and help you print smoothly.

2. Fix the inconsistent extrusion

No matter how troublesome inconsistent extrusion looks, we provide you with some easy and basic solutions to fix it. For this, you can –

  • Clean the nozzle properly with the help of a nozzle cleaning needle or entirely replace the nozzle and attach good quality nozzles.
  • Try for a cold pull method.
  • Burn the filament, unscrew the nozzle to burn the filament out but be cautious while performing this.
  • Calibrate the extruder.

3. Use half or full step layer heights.

One way to fix Z banding is by carefully changing or choosing the layers for your Printer. To choose the right layers, you need to have a clear comparison of layers with the Z-axis. It would be best if you also had a good understanding of how the motor works. It can be done by choosing half or full values only while printing. This will result in the elimination of micro-stepping and will lead to intricate and precise prints.

  • Enable a consistent bed temperature – An inconsistent bed temperature can also result in Z-banding. Initially, there were two types of heating processes – the bang-bang bed heating process and the PID bed heating process.
  • In the bang bang heating process, after the bed has reached the desired temperature is begins to cool down; it again starts reaching the set temperature once it hits below the temperature. This can result in the expansion or contraction of the heating bead leading to unpleasant prints.

PID (Proportional, Integral, Differential terms) is an algorithm suggested by Marlin to control or regulate the bed temperature to avoid unstable temperature.

  • The other easy way to fix this bug is to thermally insulate the bed temperature to avoid heat loss, stabilize the temperature, and increase the heating speed.

4. Stabilize Z-Axis rod

The Z-Axis rods are strenuous and can not straighten, causing the shafts to become highly unstable and the prints inconsistent. To check whether the Z-axis rods are defective or not, you need to look for the bearing and rails due to which the rods have become unstraight.

If the rails and bearings are ineffective, then there is an urgent need to change all defective items with durable and premium bearings that assure high-quality prints.

5. Stabilize Bearings & Rails in Other Axis/Print Bed

Stabilizing bearings and rails in other axes make us aware that the Z-axis and the Y-axis have to be looked upon. To be it Z banding or any other printing error, you should always check all the components of the Printer.

While checking the other components such as the Y-axis or the print bed, if you experience many movements, know that something is wrong. To solve this, all you need to do is tighten your Printer’s bearings and rails properly, and you are all set to make the most of the Printer.

Other Solutions To Try to Fix Z banding in 3D Prints

  • Fix Z wobble by tightening the stepper motor.
  • Make sure the rod coupler is tight.
  • Check the lead screws and bolts and tighten them.
  • Put the corrugated cardboard below the printer bed.
  • Increase the minimum layer for cooling issues.
  • Change the filament brands to a different company if the old ones do not provide satisfactory results.
  • Decouple the smooth rods from the threaded rods.
  • Make sure that the printer bed is placed correctly.
  • Grease the internal components of the Printer for its smooth functioning.
  • Check for drafts as they can affect the 3D Printer


If you wish to stand up to these obstacles and do something about them. Then we are here to help you curb all those roadblocks and let you print freely. Take away all the guidance about Z banding 3d printing. Don’t let issues like Z banding or Z wobble stop you from following your ideas.